What Are Urological Cancers?

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Urological cancers are basically divided into 6 main groups as bladder, prostate, kidney, testicle, penis and adrenal cancers.

Urology is a branch of science that includes the excretory / reproductive system in men, namely the kidney, adrenal gland, ureter tubes, urinary bladder, prostate, testicle and penis, the excretory system in women, i.e. kidney, ureter tubes and bladder organs, and the surgery of these organs.

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Bladder Cancer

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Bladder cancer occurs as a result of uncontrolled proliferation of atypical cells in the inner lining of the bladder. Smokers, those working in the paint industry, chimney sweeps, are at risk. In addition, long-term inflammation of the bladder, bladder stones can lead to bladder cancer.

Painless and bloody urination is the most important and most common symptom. Those with painless bloody urine over the age of forty should be considered as bladder cancer until proven otherwise.

Ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic rumen (MRI) can be used for diagnosis, but the definitive diagnosis is made after cystoscopy, ie imaging of the urinary bladder with a camera device or after pathological examination as a result of tumor removal.

Bladder cancers are seen in two types: superficial (only mucosal involvement) and muscle involvement (deep). Superficial ones are treated with TUR-M surgery + chemotherapy into the bladder when necessary. Deep ones can be surgically treated with removal of the bladder + artificial bladder / ileal conduit / ureterosigmoidostomy.

If there is distant organ involvement, chemotherapy / radiotherapy can be applied. Sometimes chemotherapy can be done before surgery. Follow-up is usually performed by cystoscopy every 3 months for superficial tumors, and by CT / MRI / USG every 3 months for deep tumors.

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer occurs as a result of swelling of atypical uncontrolled cells in the peripheral region of the prostate tissue. Age, genetic factors and race are the most important risk factors. The diagnosis is made as a result of increased prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the blood, a biopsy taken from the prostate as a result of digital rectal examination and evaluated in pathology. If necessary, fusion biopsy and post-diagnosis PSMA scintigraphy are important. After the diagnosis is made, the risk classification is made as low, medium high according to the psa height, pathological evaluation, local and distant organ metastases.

After all these, the patient is offered 4 types of treatment recommendations: active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy and hormone therapy. If active follow-up cannot be performed in localized cancers limited only in the prostate, surgery is recommended.

The prostate is taken with the whole prostate capsule in surgery. Seminal vesicles and regional lymph nodes are also removed. The surgery can be done open, laparoscopically or robotically. All three methods are no different in terms of oncological results, ie cancer control. However, recovery of urine control and sexual function come back earlier in robotic surgery.

Radiotherapy is a good option for those who do not accept surgery or who do not have a 10-year life expectancy with their age. Hormonotherapy or chemotherapy can be given to patients with metastases. Follow-up is done every 3 months with the PSA test.


Kidney Cancer

Kidney cancer occurs as a result of uncontrolled proliferation of atypical cells in the kidney. Hypertension, smoking and obesity are the most important risk factors. It usually occurs as a result of a mass in the kidney in routine examinations.

However, when it progresses, symptoms such as bloody urine, flank pain, swelling on that side of the abdomen may occur. The first diagnosis is made by ultrasonography, CT, and MRI examinations. The most common spread is to the lungs through blood. The definitive treatment is surgically removing the tumor or the entire kidney.

However, chemotherapy can be given in cases of metastasis, but its effect is limited. Surgery can be done laparoscopically or robotically. The advantage of endoscopic surgery is that there is less tissue damage. The advantage of open surgery is that in cases where only the tumor is removed and the kidney is left, that is, when partial nephrectomy is performed, the time for the kidney to remain anemic is shorter.

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Adrenal Gland Cancer

Adrenal gland tumors occur as a result of uncontrolled proliferation of atypical cells in the adrenal gland. Sometimes it occurs as a result of cancer of nearby organs such as kidney and lung coming here. Most of them are benign. However, of course, it can also be malignant. Tumors originate in either the cortex or the medulla.

If functional tumors occur, it can manifest itself with many serious symptoms such as hypertension, facial redness, weight gain, and weight loss. Its treatment is surgical. Tumors larger than 4 cm should be removed even if they are benign. The use of laparoscopy / robots in surgical treatment is the gold standard. It can also be done open, but tissue damage is quite high. Preference should be endoscopic


Testicular (Egg) Cancer

Testicular cancers occur as a result of uncontrolled proliferation of atypical cells in testicular tissue. Having undescended testicles, viral infections and testicular stones in the medical history increases its incidence. It is often the cancer of young people between the ages of 15-45.

If treated, over 95% cure is provided. Painless swelling in the testicle is the most important complaint and symptom. The initial diagnosis is made by physical examination, ultrasonography and tumor markers. A definitive diagnosis is made after the surgically retained testicle is removed and pathological evaluation is performed.

Whole abdominal and lung tomography is very important in staging. Depending on the stage, surgery is performed first, and then chemotherapy and radiotherapy should be applied when necessary, depending on the pathology result and the type of tumor.

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Penile Cancer

Penile cancer occurs as a result of uncontrolled proliferation of atypical cells in the penile tissue. It is rarely seen in men over 50 years old. Uncircumcision, chronic penile infections, viral infections are seem to be some of the reasons but the exact cause is unknown.

The most important symptom is the non-healing wound on the penis. The diagnosis is made by taking a piece of cancer tissue and sending it to pathology. Staging is required after diagnosis. For this, CT / MRI / PET examinations should be performed. Its treatment is performed by surgically removing the tumor penile tissue and giving chemotherapy and / or radiotherapy according to the stage.

It is important to avoid viral infections and have circumcision in order to prevent penile cancer.

Urological cancers were examined in 6 groups. Visit the subpages for more information and treatment of urological cancers.

Prof. Dr. Abdullah ArmağanUrology Specialist

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