Urinary tract infections are a disease of the excretory system that starts from the kidneys and includes the ureteral tubes, urinary bladder and prostate.
Urinary tract infections (UTI), are an inflammatory disease of the excretory system that starts from the kidneys and includes ureteral tubes, urinary bladder, prostate and external urinary tract.
If microbial agents enter the urinary tract and find a suitable environment after it clings to its mucosa by any means, it begins to multiply, disrupts the structure of normal tissue and complaints begin.
How Do Urinary Tract Infections Develop and What Are the Causes?
We can divide urinary tract infections into two groups as simple and complicated.
Simple UTI occurs as a result of microbial agents coming from the external urinary tract or other organs via circulation into the urinary tract and multiplying in this system. Complicated urinary tract infections are inflammatory formations that occur on the basis of some diseases in the urinary tract.
Congenital diseases such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), ureterovesical junction stenosis, ureteropelvic junction stenosis, posterior urethral valve (PUV) underlie UTI in children.
In adults, diseases such as kidney and ureter stones, benign enlargement of the prostate, bladder stones, urinary system cancers, tuberculosis, and urinary tract injuries are responsible.
What are the Symptoms of Urinary Tract Infection? When Is It Important?
In simple urinary tract infections, symptoms such as burning in the urine, feeling of continuous urination, frequent urination, difficulty in urinating are observed, in addition to these, more serious symptoms such as fever, chills, chills, flank pain, abdominal pain, weakness, loss of appetite are observed in complicated urinary tract infections.
If the urinary tract infection is accompanied by high fever, there is renal prostate or testicular involvement and it should be taken very seriously.
Complicated urinary tract infection is important, and if the underlying cause is not treated, it disrupts the structure of the organ it holds, and we may encounter organ failure.
If the kidneys are involved, it may cause kidney failure. If the infection progresses, microbial agents enter the blood and pass to the blood and other organs. It can lead to serious conditions that can result in death, which we call urosepsis due to multiple organ involvement.
What Should We Do If There Is an Infection In The Urinary Tract?
When there is a complaint in the urinary tract or when a doctor is visited for another reason, it is necessary to consult a urologist when infection is detected in the urinalysis.
Simple cystitis, which we call honeymoon cystitis, can be seen in adults and newly married women. If we do not think of an underlying problem in simple cystitis, we can only follow it with antibiotics.
If there is no response after treatment, further investigation is required. If the patient is a child, it should be questioned whether there is a previous urinary tract infection and if so, its association with fever. For UTIs with fever, further investigations should definitely be done, and the cause of this situation should be revealed.
Stones in the urinary tract, congenital urinary tract disorders, previous surgeries, urination habits, urinary incontinence should be investigated in detail.
How Are Urinary Tract Infections Diagnosed and Treated?
In simple urinary tract infections, only antibiotic treatment may be sufficient without further examination other than urinalysis. In addition, simple suggestions can be made such as increasing fluid intake, local cleaning and not holding too much urine.
However, if the infection recurs, then the urine culture and ultrasonography should be performed according to the urinary tract system.
Treatment can be changed according to the result of urine culture. In complicated urinary tract infections, the underlying cause should be investigated.
Especially if the patient is a child, first of all, urinary culture, urinary system ultrasonography, VCUG and kidney scintigraphy should be performed when necessary.
If necessary, additional examinations such as MR urography and tomography are performed and follow-up and treatment are arranged according to the underlying cause.
Surgical treatment may be required in congenital urinary tract diseases (such as PUV, VUR, UPJ stenosis, UV stenosis).
Underlying stones, tuberculosis, cancer, and previous surgeries should be investigated in complicated urinary tract in adults and their treatment should be arranged accordingly.
Hospitalization and hospital treatment may be required for serious infections such as pyelonephritis.