What Are Stone Diseases? Stone Diseases Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

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Stone diseases are very common in our country and one out of 6 people has stone disease. Symptoms of stone disease include severe pain.

What is Urinary System Stone? What are the reasons?

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After the urine is made in the kidneys, it accumulates in the sac of the kidney, which we call pelvis renalis.

After 3-5 cc, it comes to the ureter tubes and urinary bladder. After 400-500 cc is stored here, it is thrown into the toilet through the urethra channel.

We call this system the urinary tract system, namely the urinary system. We call the stones formed in this system as urinary system stones.

The vast majority of stones occur in the kidney. If it finds a medium to grow, it grows here and some of it is thrown out through urine before it has a chance to grow.

The exact mechanism of stone formation is unknown. However, many factors such as dehydration of the kidney, disruption of the balance of balancing minerals in administration, metabolic conditions such as hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia, concentrated excretion of calcium from urine, congenital diseases of the kidney trigger stone formation. The most important factor is thirst.

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Urinary system stones are seen in approximately 15% of our country. In other words, one out of 6-7 people has stone disease.

While the stones are mostly seen in the kidney, some stones come out of the kidneys and come to the ureter tubes, where they can affect the urine excretion and cause kidney deficiencies.

Stones in the kidney do not cause serious pain if they do not block the exit path or if there is no infection. However, stones in the ureteral tubes cause very serious kidney pain, namely flank pain, and their treatment is urgent.

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Stones can also be in the bladder, but they are less common than kidney and ureteral tubes.

It is more common in bedridden or paralyzed patients. Stones in the urinary bladder can rarely block the urethral canal, and the patient does not urinate in this situation and treatment is urgent.

What are the Symptoms of Urinary Tract Stones?

If the stones in the kidney do not cause obstruction and infection, they may not give serious symptoms. However, if the pelvic outlet of the kidney is blocked and there is an infection, very serious symptoms such as severe flank pain, chills and chills can be seen on that side.

If not treated, it can lead to very serious consequences such as sepsis. It may cause kidney failure in the long term due to obstruction.


Stones in the ureteral bottoms usually fall from the kidneys and can cause blockages. If it causes severe unbearable side pain and obstruction, treatment is urgent.

Bladder stones, on the other hand, can cause symptoms such as urinary difficulties, bleeding in the urine, abdominal pain, and decreased urinary flow.

How Are Urinary Stones Treated?

Urinary system stones are performed by medical, surgical or a combination of the two. There is a chance that stones smaller than 1 cm will fall. These stones can fall off with medicated treatment. Stones below 1 cm that do not obstruct the system can be followed for 1-2 weeks with increased fluid intake and medical treatment.

However, if the system is blocked, urinary tracts should be opened with surgical treatment when necessary. If stones between 1-2 cm are in the kidney, 70-80% of them can be broken by ESWL (extracorporeal shock lithotripsy).

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If it fails, flexible URS or PNL treatment should be done. Treatment of stones larger than 2 cm is with PNL (wig nephrolithotomy). Treatment of bladder stones can be done by PSL (wig cystolitomy) or endoscopic cystolithotomy. If the stone is too large, open surgery can also be performed.

As a result, urinary system stones are very common diseases in the society and the treatment of which can cause serious conditions such as kidney failure and sepsis if not treated.

Prof. Dr. Abdullah ArmağanUrology Specialist

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