What are bladder infections (cystitis)? Diagnosis and Treatment

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Cystitis (Bladder Infection)

Cystitis or bladder infections is also called bladder or urinary bladder inflammation.

As a result of bacteria or other microorganisms entering the bladder, it continues to reproduce here and creates inflammation.

Due to this effect, the bladder cannot function and causes signs and symptoms of cystitis.

In summary, the infection of the bladder is called cystitis.

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Cystitis (Bladder Infection) Frequency, Causes And Symptoms

The vast majority of women have cystitis throughout their lives, and 20% of women get bladder infections within a year.

In infants and children, the underlying cause is congenital administrative tract diseases, while sexually transmitted diseases in young people, prostate diseases in men in the elderly, menopause and chronic diseases in women.

The agent is usually (80%) bacteria that we call E coli. Since the urethra, i.e. external urinary tract, is shorter in women than in men, it is also very common to have cystitis.

As the bladder emptying is affected in cases such as diabetes, nervous diseases and stroke, cystitis is also very common.

Cystitis seen in women in newlyweds is called honeymoon cystitis and the underlying cause is sexual intercourse. Symptoms of bladder infections include symptoms that disturb patient comfort such as burning in the urine, feeling of continuous urine, bleeding in the urine, sudden urgency, urinary incontinence.

How Are Bladder Infections Diagnosed?

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Bladder inflammation, i.e. cystitis, should be divided into two groups.

The first is simple cystitis, where bacteria enter the bladder in the external urinary tract and become inflamed, usually without an underlying cause in women. It may be due to drinking less water, hygiene, excessive urine retention and sexually transmitted diseases.

The second is colic cystitis, and it is a bladder infection that develops secondary to another underlying disease such as bladder stone, neurogenic bladder, diabetes, urological tumors, and prostate diseases in men.

First of all, a good physical examination is performed to the patient who comes with the above-mentioned signs and symptoms.

Then, complete urinalysis, urine culture, and if necessary, urinary ultrasonography are performed and treatment is started according to the situation.

What Happens If Cystitis Is Not Treated?

Cystitis, whether simple or complicated cystitis, is a disease that needs to be treated.

If left untreated, microorganisms from the bladder pass to the kidney, causing the picture we call pyelonephritis, and in this case, the patient may have serious consequences, including kidney failure, infection of the whole body, which we call sepsis. Sepsis may result in death.

How is Cystitis (Bladder Infection) Treatment?

In simple cystitis, the patient is recommended to drink plenty of water, not to hold urine too much and pay attention to hygiene. After the urine tests are taken, it responds well to treatment with antibiotics within 5 days.

Antibiotics are given against the possible agent until the culture is released and antibiotics are changed when necessary according to the culture result. Bladder infection treatment can be given without any examination in simple cystitis.

If we think of complicated cystitis, first of all urine tests should be taken, if necessary, the underlying cause should be revealed with ultrasound and additional examinations and the necessary treatment should be performed. Stones, tumors, cancer, prostate diseases etc. in the urinary tract system If necessary, it should be done.

Prof. Dr. Abdullah ArmağanUrology Specialist

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